Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Characters' Multiple Narrative Subjectivities on Conflicting Views of Essay

Characters' Multiple Narrative Subjectivities on Conflicting Views of Postmodernism - Essay Example In The Yellow Wallpaper, John who happens to be the woman’s physician husband confines her in solitary confinement, telling their friends and relatives that she is suffering from temporary nervous depression. Since he is of high standing, there was no way of her proving the truth since her brother also a physician of high reputation gives support to her husband John’s claim (Gilman 30). She is given medication in the form of phosphates and any journeys, exercise or tonics are forbidden to her. To ‘work’ is also forbidden until she becomes well again. This includes her writing habit. John is a practical man who believes in only things felt and seen with which figures would best describe. He has intense dislike of superstition with no patience in belief or faith. This brings out the constant battle of superiority between male and female in society. The theme of unwilling imprisonment is brought out here (Gilman 34). John had secured a colonial mansion that ha d been unattended to for some time. It is well situated, off road with a great green garden. She thinks there might be problems related to the ownership of the house due to its unkempt nature. He lets her do nothing but rest, which she complains to miserably to no avail. His answer is that the trip to the mansion was solely for her sake so that she could rest well. The quote: - "Your exercise depends on your strength, my dear†¦. and your food somewhat on your appetite; but air you can absorb all the time." (Gilman 58) best exemplifies her husband’s attitude towards her opinions by treating her like a helpless victim. Her confinement leads her to being attached to the wallpaper that covered the walls. It has great patches all over and a fade look of unclean yellow faded by the intense sunlight that hits it on a daily basis. It is quite unique unlike anything she has ever seen with the quote: - â€Å"It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide--plunge off at outrageous angles, destroy themselves in unheard of contradictions† (Gilman 79) bringing out the image portrayed by the wallpaper. This goes against rational portrayal of wallpaper as being something beautiful and feminine with the scotching sun portraying the masculine oppression of the feminine gender (Gilman 80). She puts this done in writing only for her husband to appear, therefore cutting short her writing. The confinement troubles her but her husband sees no problem with this as exemplified by the quote: - â€Å"John does not know how much I really suffer. He knows there is no REASON to suffer, and that satisfies him.† (Gilman 114) showing the different viewpoints which they both have of the situation. She wants to be out of bed, helping her husband as a wife should be doing but John would hear none of it. The quot e: -â€Å"I meant to be such a help to John, such a real rest and comfort, and here I am a comparative burden already!† shows her willingness to going on with a normal life. Her confinement brings out her hatred of the room with its wallpaper with the quote: -"You know the place is doing you good †¦.and really, dear, I don't care to renovate the house just for a three months' rental,†

Monday, October 28, 2019

Perceptions About Quality Of Life And Health Promotion Nursing Essay

Perceptions About Quality Of Life And Health Promotion Nursing Essay Quality of life could be defined as a measure of an individual wellbeing. In health care quality of life is used to refer to a patients wellbeing. It is a measure of the patients emotion, physical and social condition. Quality of life may be affected by the physical and emotional surrounding of a patient. It is also a measure of their ability to do their ordinary everyday tasks. Quality of life is important in holistic nursing (Volkman Marian 2005). Holistic nursing is a type of nursing specialty that emphasizes on the whole wellbeing of a patient. Holistic nursing goes beyond diagnosis of the patients disease. It creates a bond between the nurse and the patient. The nurse offers alternative treatments that help the patient to get better. Quality of life has a varying description from person to person. It is important for a nurse to have a positive perspective towards quality of life and health promotion. It is very important when taking care of a dying patient with a lingering illness such as cancer. This is because the perception that one has affects the way one takes care of their patients. If a patient is well taken care of they have a higher survival rate as opposed to a poorly taken care of patient. The care accorded to patients affects their happiness and general wellbeing. It is also important to have a positive perspective towards quality of life since it affects the patients emotional, physical and social condition, this makes it important since holistic nursing it is important to understand a patients emotions and social. (Volkman Marian, 2005). Health promotion is also important since dying patient with a lingering illness such as cancer need to be encouraged to practice healthy lifestyles like diets, exercising and avoiding alcohol and smoking. A good perspective toward health promotion is important since it helps in increasing a patients quality of life and makes the condition they are suffering from manageable. Strategies to improve the quality of life for Mrs. Thomas and her husband Quality of life is very important for a patient like Mrs. Thomas. It is important so as to make her life worth living. Below are three strategies that could be used to improve Mrs. Thomas quality of life.The first and most important strategy in improving the quality of life of Mrs. Thomas is the basic aspect of self. Mrs. Thomas should be encouraged to first look at her life and appreciate it. By looking and appreciating herself she should be encouraged to look at her personal health, hygiene and nutrition. This will help her with fighting the effects of her cancer. She should also be encouraged to exercise every day. She should not ignore her physical appearance and she should be encouraged to look and feel beautiful daily. This will help in dealing with her condition. She should also be encouraged to exercise her spiritual beliefs. The strategy involves encouraging her to have sometime in the day for personal reflection and meditation. Its important for her to be able to spend some time alone and listen to her thoughts. Without personal reflection the other strategies cannot work. Mrs. Thomas should be encouraged to meditate to find out what makes her happy. She should be encouraged to focus on aspects of her life that give her satisfaction for example her husband or children. Being happy is a sure way of improved quality of life. It would be important for Mrs. Thomas to rate events that occur to her and she should repeat those that made her happy. She should be encouraged to do something bold for herself. She should find in herself to do something she has never done or she has always wanted to do. This will increase her satisfaction and ultimately her quality of life. The second strategy would be finding a place she belongs. This involve having a social life and going outside. It is important for the Mrs. Thomas to have a sense of belonging. This can be given by Mr. Thomas and her children. Her children should be encouraged to visit their mother even though it hurts them to see her in pain. It is important for Mrs. Thomas since it gives her a sense of belonging and satisfaction. It also creates a kind of connection in the family. It is also important for Mr. Thomas to go outside. The fresh air is important in improving her quality of life (Nussbaum, Craven, Amartya Sen, 1993). The third strategy is to reduce and eliminate her stress. By eliminating stress it is possible to improve Mrs. Thomas quality of life. The most effective way to eliminate her stress is by encouraging her and her husband to engage themselves in activities that are relaxing. Relaxation is the best key to stress reduction. Relaxation activities maybe like board games, walks, family visits and encouraging conversations. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas should also be encouraged not to have broken thoughts. Broken thoughts are one of the leading sources of stress. By having no broken thoughts stress levels will be reduced and ultimately the quality of life will be increased. Holistic Nursing Action Plan Appropriate for Managing Mrs. Thomass Care At Home Functional ability in cancer patients is highly affected due to the effects of cancer treatment to their bodies. These effects include: fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and infections. Some of the effects are psychological for example emotional weakness and stress. All this factors lead to reduced functional ability of the patient (Ettinger, 2008). So as to increase the functional ability of Mrs. Thomas it is important for her to have a proper diet. Mrs. Thomas should lead a life governed by a strict diet which should mainly consist of: whole foods, fruits, vegetables, protein, dairy products, and healthy fat. Fruits and greens should be the most important part of her diet. A proper diet is important so that her body can have enough energy to carry out her day to day duties. Proper diet improves her physical wellbeing and makes her healthy. A strict is also very important so as to avoid other diseases like heart diseases and opportunistic infections. This is because proper diet increases her immunity. Mrs. Thomas should do daily exercises. She should engage in daily aerobic and cardio therapy exercises. Its important for her to work out since it boosts her bodys immunity and makes her stronger. Walks around the neighborhood and activities like swimming are also very encouraged. Exercising helps to increase Mrs. Thomas bodys metabolism and will also keeps her trim and in good shape despite her illness. This will increase her functional ability. It is important for Mrs. Thomas to have a loving and supporting husband and family. Her family should take proper care of her by showing her love and affection. This will psychologically makes her feel better, healthier and will increase her functional ability. (Nussbaum M. Craven, Amartya K. Sen. 1993) Mrs. Thomas should avoid alcohol and tobacco smoking. It is very easy for depressed patients and loved ones to get addicted to alcohol. It is important not to drink alcohol and smoke since it does more bad than good. Ways to provide care for Mrs. Thomas once self-care is no longer possible Once self care is no longer possible its important to provide care for Mrs. Thomas since she cant care for herself. Ways of providing care have been discussed below. Since Mrs. Thomas cannot take care of herself it would be important to help around the house when one can. Helping out may include cleaning the house, clothes and dishes. As discussed above hygiene is important so it would be important to help Mrs. Thomas around. Since she cannot take care of herself it would be important to keep track of her hospital appointments. It would also be important to accompany her to the hospital visits. One should know all the medications and dosages of the medicine she is taking. It is important to keep track of the patients treatment and knowing whether the patient has taken her medicine. It is also good to understand the side effects that come with cancer treatments. As discussed earlier the side effects include nausea, vomiting, pain and fatigue. (Ettinger S. 2008) One should also keep a journal of Mrs. Thomas condition. As discussed earlier Mrs. Thomas should be encouraged to keep a record of things that make her happy and how she is feeling. Its good practice to keep Mrs. Thomas company. She needs all the emotional support she can get and should never be alone. Emotional support goes a long way. One should be supportive and encouraging. One should tell Mrs. Thomas inspiring stories of cancer survivors. A book on cancer survivors would be good for Mrs. Thomas. When talking to Mrs. Thomas it is important to remind her of the power of prayer and spiritual relief. So as to care for her a support group made up of close friends and family should be constituted. The group should be concerned with helping Mrs. Thomas during her treatment period. A fund raiser should be organized so as to raise funds for supporting Mrs. Thomas through her treatment. The management of Mr. Thomass chronic depression. So as to treat and manage Mr. Thomass chronic depression it would be important to advice him to see a psychotherapy and to use medication such as antidepressants. Mr. Thomas could also join a support group for people suffering from chronic depression. The first step towards dealing with Mr. Thomass problem would be him going to a doctor and having a correct diagnosis of his problem. Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that is used to treat and manage chronic depression. It would help Mr. Thomas to cope with his condition. It can be in the form of doctor to patient therapy, group therapy or family therapy. There is a wide range of medication available for the treatment of chronic depression. Mr. Thomas should have a doctor diagnose his condition and prescribe the medication. The doctor can also prescribe alternative treatment for chronic depression. The doctor might prescribe mood stabilizing drugs. Mr. Thomas must also have a strict diet; he should exercise more often and should have a social life. It is important to be social so as to be able to manage chronic depression.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Fried Green Tomatoes Human Nat :: essays research papers

Coping with situations within FRIED GREEN TOMATOES Human Nature, it’s our instinct, our reaction, our thoughts, and our ability to make decisions. It has been examined from every conceivable angle. It has been scrutinized, interrogated, glorified and even corrupted by every medium in the world, but none so extensively as the written word. Literature has explored every component of human nature from pride to envy and insecurity to depression. Fannie Flagg’s novel FRIED GREEN TOMATOES pays particular attention to human nature and specific ways we choose to cope with the situations that life places before us. Flagg explores humor, nostalgia, and avoidance as common examples of how, not only her characters, but humans in general confront the circumstances surrounding their lives. Humor is and integral part of human nature. It has the ability to lighten almost any situation and put people at ease. Humor is a common bond between any person on earth, from the very wealthy to the impoverished. Idgie Threadgoode is the perfect emb odiment of humor. Her wisecracks and tall tales helped her to face a number of less-than-comfortable situations throughout the novel. A prime example of her use of humor was with Smokey Lonesome. When Smokey first comes into the cafà © for a bite to eat, he is so nervous that he can’t stop shaking and he most certainly cannot eat. Idgie, seeing his discomfort, introduced herself and proceeded to tell Smokey a joke. “On November, a big flock of duck, oh, about forty or more, landed right smack in the middle of that lake, and while they were sitting there, that afternoon, a fluke thing happened. The temperature dropped so fast that the whole lake froze over, as solid as a rock, in a matter of three seconds. One, two, three, just like that…. They just flew off and took the lake with ‘em. That lake is somewhere in Georgia, to this very day…'; Idgie’s exaggerated use of humor allowed the wanderer to settle down and relax. Later, when her nephew Buddy jr. is run over by a train and loses his arm, Idgie once again uses her sense of humor to help him look at the situation from a lighter side. “When he was little and there was somebody new in the cafà ©, Idgie would bring him in and have him tell this long story about going fishing on the Warrior River, and he’d get them all caught up in the story and the Idgie would say, ‘How big was the catfish Stump?

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Health industry’s research Essay

Chou et al publication on health coverage and the health industry’s research and data analysis from current population survey has it that; about fifty four percent of United state citizen population had employer’s sponsors health insurance in 2006 with five percent (5%) having non-group insurance and almost sixteen percent (16%) of the total population are currently uninsured, several report shows that these set of people i. . the uninsured people receive less protective care, most of which are diagnosed at more complicated disease stages and tends to be given less beneficial care thus having higher mortality rates (Chou, 2009). The lack of insurance has unpleasant effect on the uninsured populace, regardless, the uninsured faces high out of pocket spending than their insured counterparts. eferencing the report of Bureau of Labor Statics that generally employment will increase about 10% between 2006 and 2016 therefore employment opportunity for homecare aids personnel will raise about 51%, automatically opportunities for physical therapist subordinates are expected to increase, more so, job opportunities for registered nurses will increase by approximately 24% though this statement look promising but what is not clear is, to what degree are these employment in health care associated to insurance coverage (p. 282). Result of research analysis carried out these experts indicates that differences in uninsurance rate exist in the health care labor force the disparities diverges extensively with relevance to the health care industry along with other industries and employees category, for instance employee working in ambulatory unit and residential care are liable to be uncovered hence health care personnel in nursing home and residential situate earn less, this factor can be associated to higher rate in uninsurance. However, most low salary earner cannot meet the expenses of first-class health insurance even when coverage is presented their employer (p. 2285). Chou et al in their final analysis statement affirm differences in uninsurance exist in the United States health care labor force and about 1 out 8 in the healthcare workforce require insurance coverage. Implementing policies distinctively meant to ensure adequate insurance for health care worker will not only aid the workforce but will promote of the health entire citizen (p. 287). Conversely, Das and Das made it clear in their publication â€Å"Health Care in the United States: Why is Price So Sensitive? † that the soaring health care rate has an unpleasant effect on productivity causing a negative impact in production in all industries at large. They added that the inability of consumer to be able to afford better health care was due to declining wages. As a result of this the United States comparative advantage becomes a nonissue (p. 462). Relatively wages increases situation forces the consumer and health care workforce with low income to exhausting a greater portion of their income on health care, obtainable literature could not explain why the rate of health care in the United Sates is increasing and why majority of the populace are not in the insurance network. It is not possible to explain the survey of price insensitivity to health care supply by examining the health care sector only consequently it must look into the interrelationship between health care and non- health care sector on the United States economy. The authors’ uses partial equilibrium model in their studies to explain the lethargic development of health care amid price inelasticity but the model cannot explain why health care supply is in elastic initially. Further disturbing issue relating to increasing health care cost is the high cost of comparative advantage of United States industries through labour productivity of the U. S. research conducts by other professional mentioned in Das and Das publication indicated that health related issue result in lost of economic productivity (p. 463). Further econometric study by the authors show that states with higher per capital health care cost have lower labour productivity in all U. S production industries either health or non health (p. 466). In order to put an end to this effect the authors indicated that partial equilibrium models will not enough rather the use of general equilibrium model should be employed. Conclusively, they derive evidence that health care rate is raising sharply in the U. S making the United States a major spender on health care, it was derived that increasing health care cost provides a negative externality by reducing labour productivity. The investigation provides clarification of the general equilibrium model of the health care and non-health care sector where higher health care rate reduce labour productivity. On the other hand, (Thompson and Cutler 2010), in the Benefits Quarterly, published a report on the health care consumerism movement. The publication was centered on the birth of health care consumerism movement which started as a result of the need to take care of the factors that contributed to the increase in health care costs and the backlash to managed care. According to the authors, the factors include â€Å"lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care service, the effect of health care on profits and wages, and the need to engage consumers more actively in health care decisions† (p. 24). Additionally, the gaps which they identified included the fact that consumers do not have the required knowledge and education and therefore are disparate participants in the â€Å"provider-patient partnership† (p. 26). They also stated that the regular need of customers to seek expert guidance from professionals when in need of health care information make the customers feel under qualified when trying to determine the value of the required health services. Furthermore, they opined that most consumers would prefer feeling more in charge of the choices that are offered to them after which they identified the need for incentives in order to get the attention of both consumers and providers as one of the gaps in health care consumerism today. The researchers then moved forward to highlight some keys that are vital in sustaining the health care consumerism strategy after which they highlighted the role of the community in ensuring that good health is collectively achieved. In doing this, they emphasized on the importance of the employers incentives, wellness programs and other activities that could boost their employees’ health. The article was concluded by the researchers stating that there should be a communal approach by all the stakeholders in the health care system to better shape and simplifies the consumerism movement. In the same publication as the previously mentioned researchers (Benefits Quarterly), Domaszewicz, Havlin, and Connolly presented an article on health care consumerism as well, but this time, considered incentives, behavior change, and uncertainties. This article was directed at providing some lessons that will serve as a guide for employers who are presently thinking of implementing â€Å"a consumerist approach to improve employee health and control the cost trend† (p. 29), on the necessary courses of action. The researchers asserted to the fact that most organizations would strive to contain costs in all ramifications especially in health care benefits so as to curb the after effects of last year’s global economic meltdown. In order to curtail the effects of this on the employee, Domaszewicz et al. suggested that the employees should employ lower-cost options such as consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) which are high-deductible plans that contain employee-controlled spending account. The employee-controlled account consists of a health savings account (HSA) or health reimbursement arrangement (HRA). The researchers however claimed that CDHPs are just the beginning and should therefore be followed with a â€Å"robust incentive- and value-based designs for health management† (p. 30). The researchers further highlighted the issues involved in the debate between â€Å"changing behaviors† versus â€Å"changing outcomes† after which they stated the several ways through which the employee can achieve the target of both taking action and achieving positive results. In addition, the researchers averred that incentives could take many forms and therefore recommended the right incentive mix after which they cited a case example. The researchers did not fail to mention the uncertainty that is evident in health care reforms and the measures that employers are taking against it. In summary, the researchers posited that the new strategies carry their own element of risk and as a result, they pointed out a few general lessons that can guide the cause of action. Comparison and Contrast of the Findings Chou et al in their publication investigated the rates of uninsurance amidst employees in the United States health care workforce via the health care industry, its sub category, and workforce. They used the 2004 to 2006 National Health data survey in assessing the rate of health insurance coverage by employing the use of multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the probability of uninsured workers in the health industry subtype (p. 2282). On the other hand, Monica Das and Sandwip K.  Das examined the insensitivity of price with regards to health care in the United States as a means of increase health care rate, it’s unpleasant effect and negative impact productivity in all production industries, they formulated a two sector model of the United States economy i. e. the non-health sector and the health sector employed the use of general equilibrium model and econometric model based on interstate production function for the estimation in providing explanation with a two sector general equilibrium model where higher health cost reduces labor productivities in both health as well as non-health sector (p. 72). Both publications were centered on the cost effects of Health Care in the United States. The difference in their manner of approach however, lays in the fact that while Das and Das concentrated on the insensitivity of the price of the supply of Health Care services, Chou et al. focused on the rates of uninsurance. However, Michael Thompson and Charles M. Cutler in their analysis examined the health care consumerism movement taking step forward, considering the rise in health care cost and lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care services. The publication reviews the movement in health care consumerism and further identifies the gaps within recent health care consumerism; more so, the authors scrutinized the lack of consumer awareness of health care service cost, the effect of health care on wages, the need to engage consumers more actively in health care decisions, what sustainable health care consumerism framework should entail and what role on the community play in the movement of consumerism. From a similar perspective, Domaszewicz, Havlin and Connolly, examined Health Care Consumerism in a different context in their publication, the article focused on incentives, behavior change, and uncertainties. Presented in the article, are the methods of approach for employers thinking of implementing â€Å"a consumerist approach to improve employee health and control the cost trend† (p. 9), the authors however recommended that employees should utilize lower-cost options for instance the â€Å"CDHPs† that control employee-controlled spending account, the account which consists of Health Savings Account or the Health Reimbursement Arrangement and not failing to point out the uncertainty that is evident in health care reforms and the measures that employers are taking against it. The main difference between their manners of approaching the topic is that Thompson and Cutler discussed the birth of the consumerism movement, the gaps present and some effective keys that will enable the development of a sustainable health care consumerism network, Domaszewicz et al. based their publication on the provision of guidelines for helping employers on implementing a consumerist approach that will be of benefit to their employees’ work health. Synthesis  Juxtaposing the findings from the contributions of these articles, it will be observed that the ideas behind what the authors of the four publications centered on the need for the improvement of the health care system as a whole. From the insurance aspect of the health care system, to the general pricing system of health care services, and the health care consumerism movements. The four publications all raised various concerns on the need for better health care for the teeming populace which includes the health care professionals who make the services available and the consumers to whom the health care services are rendered. It should be agreed that increase in health care costs and the effect of health care costs on profits and wages, have an adverse effect in the supply of health care in the United States and unfavorable impact on labor force productivity creating a negative production externality in all industries. The results of the findings presented by the authors have shown that there are evident lapses in some aspects of the present Health Care system and there is a pressing need therefore, to right the wrongs found and presented by these authors.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Advertising, Social and Economic Costs and Benefits

UNIT 1 P1 â€Å"describe the type of business, purpose and ownership of two contrasting organisations† Tesco Tesco is in private sector, but it is a PLC, a public limited company, this is an international business, also it is in primary. Tesco is doing service by providing food to its customers. Tesco exist, so people can buy food, they do their own products also, this company exists for making profit. Tesco makes profit by selling its products or making deliveries to customers.Tesco is trying to achieve , to be the best company Our vision is for Tesco to be most highly valued by the customers we serve, the communities in which we operate, our loyal and committed staff and our shareholders; to be a growth company; a modern and innovative company and winning locally, applying our skills globally. Tesco is a global business. Tesco is a public limited company (PLC) this means that the owners of Tesco are the shareholder. North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service- This is a public s ector organization, it doesn’t make profit, because it’s service costs more than the amount of money people pay them for fire.This organization exist so when the people have fire or extreme situations they call fire and rescue service and they help them. In 2004 North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority developed a new focused Vision to reflect their broader function within the modernisation agenda. â€Å"Over the 10 years to 2014, in North Yorkshire and the City of York, 125 more people will still be alive through the work of the new Fire and Rescue Service. This will be due to the Service having significantly reduced the likelihood and severity of fire and other emergencies.We will achieve this through the dedication of our staff working in partnership with other agencies in the community†. This is a local company because it is North Yorkshire. Simply summarised as – The term â€Å"125 Alive† captures the Authority's Vision in one simple phrase. It means that 125 people who might otherwise have died in an accident will be alive because of preventative action taken by the Fire and Rescue Service working in partnership with other agencies. The target will be achieved by a steady reduction year on year in fatalities in road traffic collisions and fires.The aims and objectives of this organization are to help people to rescue them away from dangerous things, and also to remove the fire away, so the people will be in safe. They are trying their best , so they will be the best from their competitors. P2 â€Å"describe the different stakeholders who influence the purpose of two contrasting organisations† M1 â€Å"explain the points of view from different stakeholders seeking to influence the strategic aims and objectives of two contrasting organisations† Stakeholders:A person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's actions , objectives, and policies. Key stakeholders in a business organization include creditors, customers, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources. Stakeholder Grouping| Interest| Tesco PLC| NY Fire & Rescue Service| Consumers/customers| They want high quality, value for money products. Customers often identify with the brands they buy.They like to see improvements that give them better value for money. | People who want to buy high quality food or other staff| This are the local people in the local area who wants to take the fire out| Employees/workers| The company provides them with a salary/money to live (a livelihood). They seek security, promotion opportunities, job satisfaction and rewards. | This are the workers in the stores, they are interested in security| This are the firemen, their job is to rescue people and to remove the fire for safety. | Suppliers| They wan t steady orders and payment for supplying stock. They also want to feel valued. People which supply different staff like water, food, drinks etc. They do it because they are sure that Tesco Is a successful business and if they are successful so they have a lot of profit , and suppliers are sure in Tesco and they have more orders cause Tesco has more customers| People, who supply the equipment, like the extinguishers. | Owners| They may be a sole trader or in a partnership. In a company it would be the shareholders. Often thought to be the most important stakeholder. They see themselves as the principal risk taker. They want to see share of profit increasing and the value of the business rising. So the owner of Tesco is the shareholders, they are interested in success of their business, they want Tesco to be the best, as every shareholder does. | The government is the owner of the NYFRS. The government wants to succeed this organization in their job, so people will be in safe. | Trad e Unions| They represent the views of the employees of the business. They want higher wages and better conditions. | They want Tesco to be successful, because if Tesco is successful, so workers conditions will be better, because this stakeholder is interested in employees comfort and life. They are interested in firemen success and conditions, wages etc. So if firemen start to rescue people or removing fire more and more, so they could get salary and this is good for Trade Union, this is what they want. | Employer Associations| They are the employer’s equivalent of the TU. They represent the employer’s interests in specific associations. | Basically this stakeholder is equivalent Trade Union, they have quite the same interests, they also take care about the workers, but in specific way. | They are looking for the comfort of the firemen, in specific associations. Local communities| The actions of businesses can have a big effect on communities around them. They want imp roved facilities and provision of jobs. | Local communities wants Tesco to be considerate about the people who live nearby, considerate about the emotions and feelings. | This are the people who live near by the fire rescue service base, so when they have an emergency call they start to drive fast and a lot of noise etc. People want them to be considerate about them and to think about them, that people could be sleeping now, or doing something different when they can’t be disturbed. Governments| They want successful organisations which contribute to economic growth and provide jobs and tax revenue. They also like businesses that contribute towards the welfare of the country’s society. | Government wants Tesco to succeed, so the economy of the country would improve more and more, and more employees would be needed as the company will grow, so less unemployed people would be. | The government wants to succeed this organization in their job, so people will be in safe, and the country’s level of popularity would increase. Tesco: 1) Owners 2) Workers 3) Supplies 4) Customers 5) Government NYFRS: 1) Government 2) Workers 3) Suppliers 4) Customers 5) Local communities D1 â€Å"Evaluate the influence different stakeholders exert in ONE organization Tesco: 1) Directors – To be as strong in everything we sell as we are in food Directors are the stakeholders which have the most influence of the Tesco, because they can do everything what they want with the business, because it is theirs. They have ultimate control and power.If they want for example they can change the name from â€Å"Tesco† to something else etc. 2) Workers- To build our team so that we create more value Workers are the second most influence stakeholders in Tesco. This is because if there is no workers so the business can’t grow at all and it will fail, no workers, means no job done. But also if the workers would leave the Tesco, it is not such a big problem, bec ause â€Å"Tesco† is well known successful business, and a lot of employees want to work for them. 3) Customers- To grow the UK coreCustomers are 3rd important stakeholders which have influence on Tesco. So if there would not be customers the business would not be able to make profit at all, so customers are also really important part of each business. If the Tesco loses the customers , so they will go to theirs opponent businesses, such as â€Å"Asda† and â€Å"Sainsbury’s†, and this could be because their would be not enough workers, or the customer service would be at low level. 4) Suppliers- To put our responsibilities to the communities we serve at the heart of what we do.Suppliers are last important stakeholders with influence on Tesco, because if the suppliers wont supply any products so Tesco would have to use its own products, but that wouldn’t make a lot of profit, and won’t be sustainable. If â€Å"Tesco† loses the supplier s, it is not a problem, because there are a lot of suppliers which are free and waiting for their chance, but if the suppliers were too good, this would be sad. P3 â€Å"Describe how two businesses are organised† TESCO: Span of control: The number of subordinates that a manager or supervisorcan directly control.This number varies with the type ofwork: complex, variable work reduces it to six, whereasroutine, fixed work increases it to twenty or more. Chain of Command: The  order  in which  authority  and  power  in an  organization  is wielded and delegated from  top management  to every employee  at every  level  of the organization. Instructions flow downward along the chain of command and accountability  flows  upward. The chart shows that Tesco has a different level of workers in its organization. These shows the mangers and members, whom they control. The managers take responsibility of what their assistants do.Manager of one job can’ t control the assistants of other job manager, so everything is equal. The boss of everyone is the store director, after him is regional manager as you can see, and later is the store manager, and only than other managers of different jobs, and on the bottom of the chart are all of the assistants of all of the mangers. So in Tesco and in all other businesses the member of the working team can’t control anyone above him, or anyone or the same line, he can control only the people who are under him. It is very hard to control big organization. So, it will be better to break the organization into smaller parts.There are 4 main ways of breaking a business down into smaller sections: 1) By Function- What is the sense of each section? 2) By Location- Where is the section situated on the map? 3) By Product- Which service does the section belong to? 4) By Process- A customer staying approached on the other customers who are interested in Tesco. There are 2 main types of organizational structure: 1) Tall 2) Flat The difference between this two is that tall has more levels than flat , however in Flat Mangers there are wider span of control. . So, we can say that Tesco has Tall structure, because in Tesco’s Organizational Chart has a lot of levels.North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service: It is really hard to understand who is who, who is controlling whom, the table is a bit messy, and so I created a better one for you: But on Structure of Commission we can see that Director General has two lines. First, is that he should control 3 Directors, Corporate and Forestry, Central Services (HR, IT, Finance), Business Units, Forest Research. The North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service is looking so different comparing to Tesco’s. . In Forestry Commission General Director works with more employees, however in Tesco Director works just with managers.But The North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service’s type of organizational structure is Tall, because it has many lines. And Forestry Commission is organization by Location, because they are separated on different locations, they have 3 directs in same country. Task 2 1) Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. It helps Tesco with finance. 2) Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. ) The act or process or producing, bringing forth, or exhibiting to view; as, the production of commodities, of a witness. That which is produced, yielded, or made, whether naturally, or by the application of intelligence and labor; as, the productions of the earth; the productions of handicraft; the productions of intellect or genius. 4) Customer Service is the commitment to providing value added services to external and internal customers, including attitude knowledge, technical support and quality of service in a timely manner 5) Sales- Total dollar amount collected for goods and services provided.While payment is not necessary for recognition of sales on company financial statements, there are strict accounting guidelines stating when sales can be recognized. The basic principle is that a sale can only be recognized when the transaction is already realized, or can be quite easily realized. This means that the company should have already received a payment, or the chances of receiving a payment are high. In addition, delivery of the good or service should have taken place for the sale to be recognized. ) Human resources- is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementi ng strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals. Task 3 I will tell now, what makes Tesco and Forestry Commission similar and what makes them different. Firstly, they both have General Director, and he has helpers.But in Forestry Commission General Director has more employees (they are: 3 directors and other staff members), however in Tesco, Director has just one helper. Secondly, this two organizations have two different, smaller parts. Tesco has broken down on process and North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service by Location. Last thing which I want to say is that, they have the same type of organization – it’s â€Å"Tall†. They have many levels and lines, which helps them to control their business. P4 â€Å"explain how their style and organization helps them to fulfill their purpose†

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Fascism in Italy essays

Fascism in Italy essays There is nothing more powerful than an idea that has come into its own This generalization reflects the concept of fascism. The idea of fascism spread like wildfire in European countries. Benito Mussolini was able to have full control of country with the use of this powerful idea. The idea of fascism exploded around the time of post-World War One, in Italy with Mussolini and a decade later in Germany with Hitler. How could such a horrible dictatorship spread so quickly and prominently through countries? Italy was in a state of distress when Fascism came into power. The country was dissatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles that resulted of World War I. The Treaty of Versailles had awarded Istria and Northern Dalmatia, territories along the Adriatic Coast to the new Yugoslav state. The post-war crisis in Italy only strengthened the idea of Fascism. The country was in a weak political state of Liberals, Socialists, and the Catholic Popular party. With a weak economic system resulting from World War I, many troops joined the unemployment market, and inflation began to soar. Italy met all the qualifications for a country to be overthrown by fascism. Discontent, hate, instability, greed were all fueled into forming Fascism. Benito Mussaloni formed the Fascio di Combattimento (League of Combat) in 1919. In 1920 many landowners and businessmen turned against the government because they were upset because there were no jobs for all these troops and peasants. The government imposed a progressive tax on income of wealthy citizens. So both the middle class and upper class were angry with the Liberal government. The fascists won over both classes, because they were fearful of social disorder, socialism and communism. Benito and his fascist followers threatened to run rampant threw the streets of Rome if power was not given to the Fascists. King Victor Emmanuel, who fled Italy f ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Learning to Fly How to Become a Flight Attendant

Learning to Fly How to Become a Flight Attendant ever since commercial flying became a travel option for the masses, the role of flight attendant has been one full of appeal and mystique. travel the world! smile brightly as you usher people through the aggravations and indignities of modern travel! it sounds great, right? even as air travel has become both more common and more complicated, the flight attendants still have an air of glamour about them. their job is to make sure we’re safe and happy as we sit in a steel sky bus for hours at a time, and they do it well. idealized dreams of travel and adventure are one thing, and a solid career path is another. if you’re not prone to airsickness, and don’t mind the idea of traveling almost constantly, this really can be a great line of work for you. now that we’ve thankfully moved beyond the days of barbie-esque flight attendants with short skirts and even shorter career spans due to â€Å"aging out,† the flight attendant world is bigger and more dive rse than ever before. let’s take a look at what it takes to become a flight attendant.the benefitsagain, the passport stamps are nice, but being a flight attendant comes with a pretty appealing set of pluses. according to the flight academy, most airlines offer their flight attendants:paid, on-the-job trainingmedical, dental, and life insurancea 401(k) retirement planlong-term disability coverageperformance-based bonusespaid vacation and holidaysdiscounts on other travel and hospitality servicesthe qualificationsalthough restrictions on age and weight have loosened over the years, there may be some limited physical requirements, born out of working in a small space and needing to be mobile for hours at a time on a moving aircraft. typically, flight attendants are physically:4’11†³- 6’4† tall (requirements vary according to airline requirements), with weight proportional.19 to 60  years old.without tattoos, facial piercings, or other obvious body mod to wear contacts if they have vision issues.neat in appearance and to stay on their feet for long periods of time.there are also usually minimum educational, experience, and language requirements. depending on a particular airline’s policies, flight attendants will likely need to be:a u.s. citizen or able to work legally in the u.s., if applying for a u.s.-based of a criminal background, particularly felonies.fluent in english.a high school graduate, ged recipient, or higher.well-versed in customer service.adept at problem solving on the fly (pun intended).although the image of a cookie cutter flight attendants are more a relic of the mad men era, each airline may have additional appearance standards for their customer-facing flight attendants.the decisionif you meet these initial criteria, your next step is to decide whether you want to move forward with becoming a flight attendant. questions you should consider:can you pass a c riminal background check and a drug test?can you work in tight spaces and stay mobile for extended periods of time?can you sell in-flight services and products on behalf of your airline?do you possess strong customer service skills? (meaning, are you likely to keep your cool when people are less-than civil in a contained space?)are you willing to learn and perform basic emergency medical and lifesaving skills as necessary (anti-choking maneuvers, cpr, etc.)?are you willing to relocate as necessary, travel frequently, and be away from home?are you willing to work unpredictable shifts, including nights, weekends, and holidays?can you commit to a rigorous training program?if the answer to any of those questions is â€Å"no,† then perhaps it’s time to look at a different career path. but if you’re full of â€Å"yes†es all the way down the list, then the next step is looking at what it takes to become a flight attendant.the trainingairlines typically have in-h ouse training programs, but there are also independent educational programs (like this one) that coach you on the daily tasks and responsibilities of the job, as well as teaching necessary skills like cpr/first aid, crisis management, customer service, and more.all flight attendants need to be certified by the federal aviation administration (faa). this certification typically follows the intensive 3 – 6 week training course offered by the hiring airline. as they get closer to completing their training, flight attendants go on test flights before they can receive their faa certificate of demonstrated proficiency.the outlookaccording to the u.s. bureau of labor statistics, the median salary for flight attendants is $44,860 per year, with about average growth over the next ten years.if you have people skills and a roaming spirit, becoming a flight attendant could be a fantastic career option for you. what do you think- are you ready to take to the skies for your next big career opportunity?looking to start a career as a flight attendant, or find a new job in the field? search for flight attendant jobs in your area of the country. happy flying!

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Hurricane Etymology and Word Facts

Hurricane Etymology and Word Facts The word hurricane is widely known and recognized by all people, but its etymology is lesser-known. How old is the word hurricane and where does it come from? Hurricanes AreNamed for the Mayan God "Huracan" Our English word hurricane comes from the Taino (the indigenous people of the Caribbean and Florida) word huricn, who was the Carib Indian god of evil. Their huricn was derived from the  Mayan god of wind, storm, and fire, huracn. When the Spanish explorers passed through the Caribbean, they picked it up and it turned into huracn, which remains the Spanish word for hurricane still today.  By the 16th century, the word was  modified once again  to our present-day hurricane.   (Hurricane isnt the only weather word with roots in the Spanish language. The word tornado is an altered form of the Spanish words tronado, which means thunderstorm, and tornar, to turn.)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hurricanes Aren't Hurricanes Until Winds Reach 74mph+ We tend to call any swirling storm in the tropical ocean a hurricane, but this isnt really true. Only when a tropical cyclones maximum sustained winds reach 74  miles per hour or more do meteorologists classify it as a hurricane.  Ã‚   They're Not Called Hurricanes Everywhere in the World Tropical cyclones have different titles depending on where in the world they are located. Mature tropical cyclones  with winds of 74 mph or more that exist anywhere in the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, or in the eastern or central North Pacific Ocean east of the International Date Line are called hurricanes. Mature tropical cyclones that form in the Northwest Pacific basin the  western part of the North Pacific Ocean, between 180 °Ã‚  (the International Date Line)  and 100 ° East longitude are called typhoons.  Such tempests  within the North  Indian Ocean  between 100 ° E and 45 ° E are simply called  cyclones. Hurricanes Get PersonalizedNames to Better Track Them Since storms can last for weeks and more than one storm can be occurring at a time in the same body of water, theyre given male and female  names to reduce confusion about which storm forecasters are communicating about to the public.   Hurricane Names Are BorrowedFrom Names of the People They Impact Many storm names are unique to the basin they exist in and regions they impact. This is because names are lifted from those popular in the nations and territories of the lands within that basin. For example, tropical cyclones in the northwest Pacific (near China, Japan, and the Philippines) receive names common to the Asian culture as well as names taken from those of flowers and trees.  Ã‚   Updated by Tiffany Means

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Potential for Performance Management to Contribute to Essay

The Potential for Performance Management to Contribute to Organizational Effectiveness - Essay Example (Kazemek, Edward A. Glime, Rebecca, 1989) A performance management process is a process by which these things will take place in a systematic, consistent, persistent, patient, and comprehensive fashion throughout the organization. An organization's management process must both manage what gets done, as well as how those things get done (Sink, D. S. 1987). For example, the management process must make sure plans are developed, and that the process by which plans are developed is constantly improving; the management process must make sure services and products are delivered on time, and that the processes by which those goods and services are developed is constantly improving. The process by which an organization's management team accomplishes constant performance improvement in all aspects of the business must be given at least equal emphasis to the process by which the organization gets products and services out the door on time.

Friday, October 18, 2019

How is meaning cunstructed in images Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

How is meaning cunstructed in images - Essay Example and stabilizing the interpretations of specific images, about 35 years ago, Roland Barthes wrote about it and said that all images imply, underlay their floating chain of signifiers and the reader is able to select some of them and ignore the remaining that is they are polysemous. Dysfunction raises a question of polysemy. To fix the floating chain of signified different techniques are applied so that fear of uncertain signs can be encountered and minimized, these techniques mainly involve linguistic or verbal messages (Marchese, 1995). Institutional apparatus that chooses and provides text and images to the common public includes captions, labels, placards, guidebooks, brochures and fliers and they all come in linguistic messages. Curators, teachers and editors use these tools. Institutions and practices that strengthen the use of images as well as their interpretations also use the same tools as their major part. It means that image in a textbook seems to illustrate and support the meanings of the information written in the text of that textbook. When we see an image in an advertisement, the first thing which comes in our mind is that it is there to be helpful in selling the product by looking at someone enjoying possession and consumption of that particular product. Therefore we have some special standards of text and images and their correlation of explanation by text and illustration by images (Marchese, 1995). For the same reason, discussions are based on the images in textbooks and advertising, by the observers of the semiotics of images. To advertise any image is problem creating and elusive, Barthes says in "Rhetoric of the image†. Stable platform of advertisements and textbooks were used by Gà ¼nter Kress and Theo van Leeway to build their visual semiotics and it is a complete and valid way to proceed except some standard cases which put down the signifying potential will be ignored. Conceptualist artists have worked a lot to turn the standard canons

What was the historical significance of the Great Railroad Strike of Essay

What was the historical significance of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 - Essay Example If we look at this event from a historical perspective, it was the forerunner modern labour laws and unions ("Ohio History Central"). The working class began to realize that they were not just puppets of their employers and they could voice their rights. They also started thinking on the lines that they had a greater chance of having their demands met if they stood up collectively. More and more organized strikes were witnessed in succeeding years and it was not long before labour unions started to form. Even at the time, the most charismatic labourers of the lot started to take control of small groups of fellow labourers marking the first instances of present day union leaders (O. Stowell 128-137). And although proper labour laws were not adapted until after the great depression of the 30’s; the framework for such laws had already been devised due to excessive pressure. This was done by the labour unions via organized strikes, on President Roosevelt (Rhea Dulles and Dubofsky 319-388). The railroad workers of 1877 might just have seen their wage cuts restored, but this marked the beginning of a flurry of strikes across industries which evolved into more coordinated and structured ones over

Peculiarities of Girth Calculation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Peculiarities of Girth Calculation - Essay Example This has to be followed by Leveling and grading, then compacting and trimming of the wall surfaces that the excavation exposes. There is no multiple handling of the excavation materials on the site as the materials are considered inert unless there is a different description. Reinforcement of about 5% is applied to the beams and columns. The Horizontal work in this enforcement includes the beds, foundation, blinding, column, ground beams, base, slabs, attached beams and the beam casings. The shape is considered regular except when there is a contrary description. Any shape that is not rectangular or square is viewed as irregular. The concrete casings, columns and steel beams are regular shapes. DPC (Damp-proof courses) is made to an appropriate width of 300mm before the formation of cavity trays. DPCs are considered to be including the formation of laps, angles and edges (ends). They also cover the pointing edges exposed by the excavation. Finally, they cover bonds to the DPM (damp-proof membranes) and materials of similar properties. Openings, cavities, liners, DPCs and fixtures related to mechanical connections. This will require items like steel lintels, wind posts, wall end bonding, wall end ties, boiler seats, winders and landings. Additional requirement includes regularly shaped materials with accurate dimensions and references as specified in the NRM2 methods. The ground dimensions are obtained by squaring the sides of the rooms. The infilling panels are considered to include sealants, strips, and intumescent compounds, setting blocks as well as fixings. Other forms of block work are done in glasses, plastics and any form of glazing. The size of the glasswork elements are considered irregular, made in small rectangular size blocks. The panes are obtained from these rectangular blocks. Under the NRM2 standards, the constructions have two surfaces, including brickwork, stonework and block work.  

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Diversity Audit Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Diversity Audit - Essay Example The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a diversity audit conducted on Sitel Corporation. Sitel is reputed to be â€Å"the leading global business process outsourcing provider of customer care and complementary back-office processes† (Sitel, 2010). The Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility program as an agent for societal change wherever Sitel is found around the globe, which specifically totals 140 worldwide locations. It espouses a commitment to culture and values of corporate citizenship, to improving the quality of life of their associates, to providing value to the business and their clients, and to contributing to the communities where they operate and which they call home (Sitel, 2010). The manpower-intensive nature of the Company, and the wide global reach of its operations, provides plenty of opportunities for the firm to pursue diversity and inclusion in its organizational framework. It implies as much in its website where it claims to â€Å"identify and assist individuals† and to provide â€Å"empowerment through education to individuals who could have missed this career opportunity without proper training and coaching† (Sitel, 2010). While not in so many words, the Company agrees to provide opportunities to individuals situated out of the mainstream, or dominant, social group, who normally would not have had the opportunity to engage in jobs such as are offered by Sitel. There are a great many criteria that may be employed to assess diversity, but not all shall be applicable in all cases and for all organizations. Sitel counts among its businesses a widely varied mix of business process outsourcing services including global call centres and personalized customer services. It is therefore necessary to assess the company according to the following attributes (Harvey and Allard, 2008, p. 329): As to an understanding as to the conduct of a

A report on based on the company Gourmet burger kitchen Essay

A report on based on the company Gourmet burger kitchen - Essay Example Finally in the last section we have suggested Gourmet Burger Kitchen to open its franchise in a new country Switzerland. Gourmet burger kitchen is a casual dining and a high market restaurant chain in United Kingdom. They deal with the wide variety of delicious burgers served with salads, and fresh chips which itself is a complete package. They also deal with vegetarian demand as they deal with delicious side salads and dinner salads. Apart from providing quality food, they are also providing an illustrious and non smoking environment which acts as a perfect blend with their casual eating (Dow, 2006). In 2001, three Kiwis came together and opened their first restaurant in Battersea, London, where they served the best burgers in town. Since last eight years this food chain has expanded to over 50 restaurants alone in UK. In November 2009, the gourmet burger kitchen 50th U.K. restaurant opened at Soho Wharf Clink Street, London (Rose-Day, 2009). But this food chain has not only set its business in the boundaries of U.K. but it has also established internationally and has opened its branches in four main countries; Greece, Ireland, Turkey, Dubai and Oman (Gourmet Burger Kitchen, 2009). Currently there are 5 branches of gourmet burger kitchen in Dubai and 1 branch in Turkey but it plans to operate and expand its operations in further countries. They have boasts its sales but is regarded as the London’s best burger for the last two years, further it is also considered as leader burger themed concepts. Not alone in London but they have spread their charm among the food lovers of Dubai as well (Hassan, 2008). Gourmet kitchen burger provides quality, unique and tasty burgers to its customers. They have specialized themselves in mainly burgers and due to this today they have 28 different yet delicious burgers on their menu card (Rose-day, 2009). Gourmet burger kitchen is operating successfully in all the countries from UK to other

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Diversity Audit Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Diversity Audit - Essay Example The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a diversity audit conducted on Sitel Corporation. Sitel is reputed to be â€Å"the leading global business process outsourcing provider of customer care and complementary back-office processes† (Sitel, 2010). The Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility program as an agent for societal change wherever Sitel is found around the globe, which specifically totals 140 worldwide locations. It espouses a commitment to culture and values of corporate citizenship, to improving the quality of life of their associates, to providing value to the business and their clients, and to contributing to the communities where they operate and which they call home (Sitel, 2010). The manpower-intensive nature of the Company, and the wide global reach of its operations, provides plenty of opportunities for the firm to pursue diversity and inclusion in its organizational framework. It implies as much in its website where it claims to â€Å"identify and assist individuals† and to provide â€Å"empowerment through education to individuals who could have missed this career opportunity without proper training and coaching† (Sitel, 2010). While not in so many words, the Company agrees to provide opportunities to individuals situated out of the mainstream, or dominant, social group, who normally would not have had the opportunity to engage in jobs such as are offered by Sitel. There are a great many criteria that may be employed to assess diversity, but not all shall be applicable in all cases and for all organizations. Sitel counts among its businesses a widely varied mix of business process outsourcing services including global call centres and personalized customer services. It is therefore necessary to assess the company according to the following attributes (Harvey and Allard, 2008, p. 329): As to an understanding as to the conduct of a

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Macro Analysis about Apple Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Macro Analysis about Apple - Research Paper Example ation has always been at the forefront of innovations in the electronics industry, their biggest drawback has been inability to hold onto market share after the initial novelty wears off. This has seen Apple Inc. start to transform itself to a fully-fledged consumer electronics organization and away from being an inventive computer manufacturer. The cause for this transformation has mainly been due to external factors as the company expands globally and comes up against increased competition (Lashinsky, 2012). This paper will seek to carry out an analysis of Apple Inc.’s macro-environment using the PESTLE tool with the aim of detailing critical issues facing Apple’s marketers. Moreover, this information will be applied when making recommendations regarding marketing strategies for Apple Inc. The macro-environment of Apple Inc. will help in the determination of the organization’s current situation. To carry out this analysis, a PESTLE analysis will be applied with the objective of determining the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that will impact Apple Inc. This tool is effective in investigating the macro environment of an organization with the intention of using the information as a guide for strategic decision-making. The assumption for using a PESTLE analysis is that, if an organization carries out a current audit of its environment, while also assessing probable trends and changes, it gains a competitive advantage over its competitors in responding to these changes (Keller, 2013). This tool is useful in comprehending the larger picture with regards to, the wider environment that Apple is operating in, while also allowing the company to understand risks present in the market, as well as potential, position, and direct ion that the organization should take strategically. While using a PESTLE analysis, a company can find out where their products are positioned with regards to the external environment, which will

Monday, October 14, 2019

Witness Memory as Evidence in Criminal Trials

Witness Memory as Evidence in Criminal Trials 1. When, and why, are witnesses’ memories unreliable as evidence in criminal trials in England and Wales? Memory Memory is one’s ability to recall the past events. Memory let us explain our personal experiences and perception about anything which is occurred in past. Types Of Memory There are three types of memory Episodic Memory Episodic memory refers to our memory of special event like accident, death etc. Semantic Memory There are too many general knowledge is stored in one’s mind which comes under the semantic memory type. It also refers to the information which is stored in our mind to perform any skill. It also tells us how to perform in some repeated situation. Procedural Memory Understanding the procedural memory is rather difficult to understand and contains different kind of information. Generally it refers to series of events which occurred on numerous times. Importance Of Witness Memory Witness memory is a fuel of any investigation because it let investigator to collect information about incident but human memory is too fragile to exactly remember every moment. There are also numerous factors involved which affect witness memory that is environment factors, witness factors, stress levels of the witness/victim, weapon focus. When Witness Memory Is Unreliable As Evidence? Witnesses memories are unreliable as evidence in criminal trials in England and Wales when there is a â€Å"TurnBull† direction indicated the state of witness at the time of incident happened because so many researches has found the massive impression on the quality of information. What Is TurnBull? There are too many environmental factors which affect the memory of witness and can damage the quality and quantity of information. R. V. Turnbull guidance proposed a term ADVOKATE Amount of time one observed Distance – What was the distance between event and witness Visibility – How much the scene was clear? Obstruction – Was there anything obscuring the view? Known or seen before – If the situation was familiar? Any reason to remember – What is the reason behind to remember. Time lapse – How long the exposure of event? Error or material discrepancy – Is there any discrepancy between the fact and the description (Booklet). Why Witness State Is Unreliable In England and Wales, Evidence is not reliable, when there is a Turnbull direction in a state of witness because sometime witness rely on external help to recall the incident or he may have perceived wrongly due to distance or visibility or both (Bull, 1999) Generally people under the investigation are not ready to recall the incident currently. Many factors like fear, stress and nervousness can affect their quality of information. Sometimes they rely on external resources to feed them and they wrongly perceive the series of happening occurred at TBR events. Sometimes witness may lie for any previous dispute or grudge. Witness may be biased and can provide wrong information to affect the investigation Conclusion Since witness memory depends on lots of factors which are indicated through the famous term ADVOKATE therefore investigation should be taken with caution and every term of ADVOKATE should be properly and clearly note down. To gather worthy information from the witness, should check the witness personal preference of biasness or favoritism. It should also be checked that whether the witness is pressurized by the culprit to speak lie. What changes should be made, to the procedures for identifying suspects in criminal investigations in England and Wales, according to psychological research? Human memory is too fragile to exactly remember the incident which happened that is why interviewing the witness to identifying the suspect is rather difficult task. It can also affect by the â€Å"Turnbull† directions. Usually witness replies the interviewer in broad term and can only describe six or seven characteristics of suspect like age (Between 20-30) or height (between 5’6’’ – 5’8’’) that is why it is always difficult to get accurate knowledge about victim. The accurate information may be collected through cognitive interview but this type of interview demands too much time to conclude things. These re the reasons for which psychological research stress on the identification parade to identify the culprit. (Kapardis ebrary, 2010) Why Should Be Identification Parade Arranged? Identification parade are arranged to avoid two hurdles of identifying the culprit. Verbal Overshadowing In most of crime, during the investigation, witness is interviewed by more than one officer and provided stream of information due to which he can mix up the details which is stored in witnesses’ mind and the information he is provided by the officers about culprit. If identification parade is arranged then a witness can easily identify the suspect or the person who is somehow linked with the crime. Information To The Public Some crimes are needed to announce in public through media and police shows the picture, video or sketch of suspect in public. Sometimes a totally innocent person can be suspected and shown to public. Witnesses, after seeing the police announcement about suspect can to mix-up the faces of suspect with actual culprit. In that case, after the identification parade, officers are directed to ask witnesses whether they have seen any broadcast on media or not? Asking directly to the witness is rather strange. According to researchers, it is more appropriate to ask logically by the witness rather than directly. Changing Facial Expressions. Facial expressions of people are changed with the passage of time due to weight, tiredness, hair color or culprit can deliberately change it to be hidden from the police but if culprit is arrested for identification parade then he cannot change his facial expression and can be identified by the witness. Conclusion Investigation with witness should be deal with cautious and interviewer should know the art of interviewing to get accurate information. Investigator should avoid direct questions like was that man wearing black shirt? Or did you see blood spot on right side of window? It is recommended to ask series of questions to grab the fact like the series below. What have you seen at spot? Can you tell us the gender of person you have seen? What was he wearing? It is also recommended to setup interview as soon as possible because there is margin of memory fail. Describe the extent to which offender profiling is relied upon both in criminal investigations and in criminal trials in England and Wales.? Offender Profiling Offender profiling is a tool of investigation about the culprit with the help of evidences. Offender profiling is commonly perceive as a magical ability of investigator to put hands on the culprit. It is also called psychological profiling, criminal personality profiling, profile analysis and the offender profiling is carried by the profilers or offender profilers. Offender profiling is a psychological assessment of evidence which is collected from the crime scene. Offender profiler collects evidence from the crime scene and assess assumes the personality type which usually exhibits similar patterns (Jackson Bekerian, 1997). Aims Of Profiling The aim of profiling is to get closer to suspect and get the answer of three questions What happened at the spot of incident? What personality type can be involved in it? What personality traits can be possessed by that personality type? These questions are generally analyzed by the psychologist who are expert of their field and are outside of the police department. Limitations Of Offender Profiling Although the crime scene can reflect the personality of offender and psychiatrist put insights on it but sometimes searching the link between the crime and mental state of offender is not cleared or understandable. It is also criticized that psychologist are helpful only in the crime which are committed in extreme cases of mental illness. They are not much useful in the crimes which are not committed due to mental illness. One more criticism is usually done on clinical approach that psychologists works according to science of psychology which is remain ambiguous and has flaws in it. Understanding and evaluating complex human psyche is rather difficult task and sometimes it is understood completely wrong Conclusion Offender profiling is no doubt a significant part of crime investigation but it is also limited in a way. It restricts psychiatrist to some specific pattern of personality traits while human behavior is always complex and cannot read accurately always. It is not necessary that crime scene always show the exact pattern of behavior which culprit exhibit. Identify the key ways in which the research, into common forms of decision-error, might inform and improve practice in criminal investigations and trials? Deception Identifying someone’s lie is not easy according to research reaching correct result is tending to fall between 50 to 60 percent. The more common reason of this trend is over confidence of people in their ability to judge others. Detection Of Deception Despite of fact that deception cannot be easily caught, people also make some basic judgment errors. These judgment errors are categorized in five types. Pinocchio’s Nose There is indeed some universal signs of lying like stammering, avoid eye contact, blushing but it cannot equally apply to everybody on the earth. So these universal signals may guide to wrong direction. Erroneous Assumptions Some people thing that deception can easily be caught by facial expression or they are the master of face reading. Some people do have the ability of face reading but in general this ability is over estimated. Othello Error This type of error is actually comes in existence due to Shakespeare’s drama where Othello achieved his target by accusing Desdemona but in modern criminal justice system this error misleads because most of people became nervous and feared when the feel that they are under observation. The Plausibility Problem Plausible and implausible problems have problem to judge right because we do not believe implausible event if it is reported by some old man. Countermeasures A natural liar can deceive the interviewer after noticing the interviewer suspicion and can adjust his/her behavior accordingly. Techniques To Improve Decision Errors Scholars and researchers proposed three techniques of improving decision errors. Un- spoken deeds Lying can be judged by the entire body language which includes gestures, postures, facial expressions, voice quality etc. Some common proposed techniques of judging un spoken deeds are: Decrease in movement of entire legs till feet Decrease in hand movements Sudden increase and decrease in voice. These all assumed signs should be deal with cautious because it cannot be true in every situation like deception errors and may lead to in accurate judgment. Spoken Deeds Numerous techniques are used to judge the â€Å"REAL† of words that are written or spoken. The two most famous techniques of read between the lines are: Statement Validity Analysis (SVA) which is developed by Steller and Kohnken in 1997 which is then incorporated by Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA). It implies that our account is different in content and quality in case of reality or imagination. This techniques uses nineteen criteria to judge a statement. This technique is not commonly use in U.K. Physiological Methods The most common technique of physiological method is Polygraph, which measures physiological reaction like heart beat, sweating etc to check the deception. The polygraph is conducted through different sensors that are attached to the body and every physiological reaction recorded as a graphical presentation. Although polygraph is considered as very effective tool of detecting deception and has been used in different countries but it is not used in U.K. criminal justice system due to complex human nature and the fact that human behavior and their psychological reactions are vary from person to person. Conclusion To improve decision making process in U.K spoken deeds and physiological test should be considered because these two techniques have been using in different countries and showing successful results to some extent but these techniques should be used with the caution and must not be rated overly. It should be used with the understanding that human nature varies from person to person and same reactions cannot be equally applied to everybody Bibliography Booklet. (n.d.). Retrieved from Police Service Of Northern Ireland: Milne, R. and Bull, R. (1999).Investigative interviewing: Psychology and practice. Chichester: Wiley.† Kapardis, A., ebrary, I. (2010). Psychology and law: a critical introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press 2010. 1 | Page

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Alternate Energy Sources :: essays papers

Alternate Energy Sources WINDMILLS The reason why I chose to do a project on windmills is because I would always drive out to Palm Springs and I would see these huge thing’s that looked like something out of a star wars movie. When I got closer to them I realized what they were. They were windmills. Once I knew what they were I wanted to know what they did, my mom told me that they provide energy. Windmills are made of parts such as the rooter electric generator, speed control system and the tower. When there is a large group of windmills, they are called wind farms. Wind farms are located in deserts. Because wind mill farms are usually in the desert the energy has a long way to travel to get to a town. Some advantages to the windmill is that it’s a renewable source of energy and it’s very cheap, the energy that comes will never run out because the sun gives off convection currents which the energy from windmills will never run out. Another great thing about the wind mill is it needs very low maintenance. Some cons to the wind mill is that they are not as people would like. Because the wind has no rules you can’t always depend on it. You can’t save up wind mills for when there is an energy crisis like right now. People complain that windmills are too noisy, but since not that many people live very close to them its not that big of an issue. A very bad problem with windmills and a sad one is that the blades of the windmills kill lots of migrating birds. In the olden days they used to use windmills for energy to grind grain. In factories they would use windmills to saw wood. During the 1800’s in America people would use the mills to pump water. Wind power is the fastest growing form of energy.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Humanities in the Early, High And Late Middle Ages Essay example -- es

Abstract Learning Team A will use several research methods including text, internet and other methods to explore the humanities and the effects and developments that the humanities of the Early, High and Late Middle ages had on society. We have made some very interesting findings and come up with some intriguing conclusions. The findings are most definitely in condensed form for the simplicity of our assignment, although if given an unbridled word count, surely we would demonstrate volumes of text form such interesting periods. The Early Middle Ages Before we can talk about humanities, we must first define the word â€Å"Humanities†. Humanities are the investigation of human beings and their culture and their self-expression. We are going to discuss how humanities reflect changing concepts of nature and human beings in different historical periods. Human beings in today’s society are not aware of the history of people. In just about every area that we participate in on a daily basis, the humanities of our ancestors contributed to that area. The reason we study the different parts of the humanities is to get a better understanding of where human beings have been and where we need to go. The more we study the further we can go and improve the future based off the past. Christianity greatly influenced the Early Middle Ages. This epoch existed between 500-1000 C.E. There was little stability during this time. Western Europe was under attack from Germanic tribes and Eastern Europe was battling against the Arabs. Fiero (2002) states, â€Å"the Germanic tribal people and practices blended with those of classical Rome and Western Christianity to forge the basic economic, social and cultural patterns of medieval life† (p.69). According to the website German Culture, in the Merovingian Dynasty (482-751 C.E.) under the rule of Clovis, â€Å"the Franks reluctantly began to adopt Christianity following the baptism of Clovis, an event that inaugurated the alliance between the Frankish kingdom and the Roman Catholic Church† (Medieval Germany -, n.d.). Christianity would reach an all time high during the reign of Charlemagne. After being crowned emperor of the Romans in 800 by Pope Leo III, Charlemagne brought education and enlightenment to his peo ple (Fiero, 2002, p.74-75). The Metropolitan Museum of Art website outlines Charlemagne’s accomplishments He founds schools, ... ...great history of the world and all the events that took place. References Central Europe (including Germany), 500-1000 A.D. (2000-2005). Retrieved July 30, 2005, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: Duffy, S.L. (n.d.), Europe 1000-1300: the high middle ages. Retrieved July 27, 2005, from   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Fiero, G. K. (2002). The Humanistic Tradition (Fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Lindisfarne Gospels. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2005, from British Library: Online Gallery European Manuscripts Web site: Medieval Germany - The Merovingian Dynasty, ca. 500-751. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2005, from German Culture Web site: Snell, M. (n.d.). The Book of Kells: Splendid Medieval Manuscript. Retrieved July 28, 2005, from The Brainy Dictionary (2005). Definition of Schism. Retrieved July 27, 2005 from

Friday, October 11, 2019

Perception of Time

We often brag about the technological and scientific developments of today's modern society and how we benefit from these advancements. The barriers that were once created because of the diversity in culture were brought down by the modern trend of globalization. Culture is society's main foundation that is deeply rooted in our native land. Culture is a broad term encompassing tradition, ways, and means of leaving, traits and values. Every individual belongs to a certain culture to which he has to fit his activity, values, and attributes. Everyone is raised within the confinements of his or her own culture and brought up by beliefs, traditions, values, and traits which conform to the standards set by the culture that has long been intact in our society. The line of conflict between humans with regards to their culture starts when what is culturally acceptable to us may not be acceptable to others. Even science that we used to think is universal and adheres to generally accepted human principles is predominated with the culture of the people from the western hemisphere (Bartholomew 36). Some behaviors that do not comply with the standards of a certain culture are often remarked as an abnormality or deviance. Thus, even though science applies universal scientific principles, it is never neutral in determining what is deviant or abnormal and what is not (Bartholomew 36). It can never really explain why some cultures do certain practices that are not culturally accepted in other countries. We used to separate behaviors and label them as normal, moral and legal. Other traits, practices and rituals that do not fit in what is accepted in our culture are recognized as otherwise. These activities reflect a person's prevailing norms, values, and beliefs that he adheres to at a particular time and place (Bartholomew 36). The psychological aspect that is responsible for the discrepancies in people's culture and how it affects our perception is cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is a theory of knowledge that is responsible for the person's judgment on what is deemed as acceptable. This judgment is anchored to his or her beliefs, values, and attitudes that are shaped by the culture he or she was accustomed to (Bartholomew 37). Hence, the culture of individuals influences their perception on things around them. They view things according to their existing beliefs and values. Time is also perceived differently in many cultures. Individuals see time differently today than the people in the past used to ages ago. Through the invention of time devices, the people of modern times are able to track time by the hour, by the minute, by the second, and even by the millisecond. Thus, the people’s perception of time molds them and their minds. The ancient people were only aware of the fundamental time—the night and day. They used to determine time by making interpretation of the celestial and heavenly bodies. Through the use of these methods, humans also acquired an understanding of the future. They perceived the future in terms of contingencies of cause and effect relationship. People were able to utilize their environment to develop a perception of time. Their ancient clocks and calendars were the daily motion of the sun and moon, as well as the season changes (Falk n. ). In 1895, H. G. Wells' book, The Time Machine, was made available for the public. Wells' fiction novel opens to people the possibility of traveling through time. The idea seemed impossible, but well-known Albert Einstein explained that attaining the ability or means to travel to the future or to the past is not improbable (Gott 8). Einstein proposed his theory special relativity in 1905, describing the possibility of time travel based on the descr iption of how time is measured differently by moving and still observers. It is further strengthened by his mathematics professor Hermann Minowski, looking at time mathematically as the fourth dimension (Gott 8). With all the psychological differences explained by cultural relativism, the different perception of time in each culture and society, and the possibility to travel through time, a clear, if not precise, definition of perception of time can be attained. 2. 0 Sources Edwin A. Abbot in Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions provides an overview of a two-dimensional world and guides his readers through some of the implications of life in two dimensions. Meanwhile, Robert Bartholomew, in his article â€Å"Borderlands: Deviance, Psychiatry and Cultural Relativism,† explores the problem with cultural relativism, basically defined as the principle in which the belief of an individual is analyzed and interpreted in relation to the individual's own culture. Ray Bradbury in â€Å"A Sound of Thunder† warns us that traveling to the past can be dangerous. Antonio Damasio, in his article â€Å"Remembering When† explains the concept of mind time. Dan Falk's â€Å"Past, Present, Future PERCEPTIONS OF TIME THROUGH THE AGES† presents differences in perceiving time through different ages. Richard J. Gott, in his book Time Travel in Einstein's Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel Through Time, discusses applications of time machine, wherein time travel is possible and how time travel can be explained in terms of physics and quantum mechanics. Dorinne K. Kondo in her article â€Å"On Being a Conceptual Anomaly† presents her experiences as a Japanese American woman. Robert Levine in A Geography of Time: The Temporal Misadventures of a Social Psychologist analyzes what it means to live beyond time or by time event. Richard E. Nisbett in his book The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently†¦ and Why confronts conjectures of well-known philosophers with a different take on human thought influenced by cultural ideologies and principles. The videotaped program Only Human presents few experiments which were created to learn various aspects of human behavior. The book How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Ag e by Theodore Schick, Jr. and Lewis Vaughn provides strange assertions and ideas abound in culture to illustrate the rational assessment of any claim. Finally, the videotaped program Time Travel shows that space is curved, time is relative, and time travel is theoretically possible. 3. 0 Results People live by the underlying rules and principles in the society where they belong. They adhere to the maxims and dogmas that have long been in existence. They pattern their everyday life according to these unwritten rules that governing the society. To conform to the traditional beliefs and values is to live harmoniously with the other people. People coexist in a society that must adapt and do what is culturally accepted to avoid being ostracized by the general public. . 1 Perception As mentioned earlier, cultural relativism explains the people's differences in perception. People’s judgment differs from one another because they pattern things according to their cultural preferences. If something fits their criteria as prescribed by their culture, then it is acceptable for them. Standards set by culture create cultural diversity in the world. According to Richard Nisbett, Westerners and East Asians looked at things differently resulting in dissimilarities in understanding. This is due to the difference in environment, social structures, philosophies, and educational background. In addition, it was discovered that Asian thought is holistic or a functional relationship of parts and the whole. They do not much rely on formal logic or categories. In comparison to the Westerners, people from the west mostly rely on formal logic to understand their behavior. In Dorinne Kondo’s article, â€Å"On Being a Conceptual Anomaly†, she relays her experiences upon conducting a research in Japan. She was raised as an American so she had a difficult time adjusting herself on the ways of living in Japan. This is because the Japanese perceive White people as different and offensive (Kondo 524). During the course of her stay in Japan, she had to learn their traditions, values, and most of all, their practices to be able to cope up with the new environment she was in. There came a point when she saw herself differently, not as the observer on the immersion she was doing but as part of the participants in her research. There is an existing dilemma brought by cultural relativism especially in the field of mental health. Psychiatry is a branch of psychological science that deals with human behavior. Through psychiatry, we are able to find out if we have acquired any psychological disorders. Basis on the diagnoses on such behavioral disorders is human behavior only without in-depth consideration of the underlying social, cultural, and political circumstances that brought up such behavior (Bartholomew 38). Examining closely the behavior of people's conformity to a group is discovering the power and influence of the majority in a certain society (Only Human n. p) Psychiatry can be considered as the most debatable branch of medicine. There is a necessary clarification on the term mental illness. â€Å"Illness† denotes an impairment or injury on any body's part. People who were diagnosed with mental illness do not have any injury, but only suffering living difficulties (Bartholomew 38). Based from the ideas discussed by Nisbett and Kondo, an American may experience difficulty adapting to an environment different from his usual environment and therefore may be tagged as mentally ill by the Japanese, or it could be the other way around. This just shows that there is an existing conflict brought about by cultural relativism. Due to the diversity of culture, there is no strong fundamental basis on what is a behavioral disorder. 3. 2 Time In a world where time is considered as a necessity while many of us try to squeeze in the tasks that we have to accomplish with the little time that we have, it is fascinating, and at the same time important, to learn how time was viewed and used through the course of human civilization. Across the centuries, humans have looked and treated time differently the way their ancestors used to perceive time. At present, there is an international standard of telling time and it is universal, for every nation adheres to that standard. Due to the rotation of the earth, people experience differences in time—when it is day in the east, it is nighttime in the west. Humans have developed a biological clock or circadian rhythm based on the daily activities and lifestyle of a person. This clock is located in the hypothalamus of one's brain. This is responsible for how a person’s body perceives time. For instance, it is nighttime in his or her biological clock if he or she feels tired and sleepy (Damasio 36). When the region of the brain that is highly important for learning and recalling new information is damaged, a major disturbance occurs in a person’s innate ability to place events in a chronological sequence. This is what happens to amnesiacs or people suffering from amnesia. They lose the ability to estimate the passage of time in different scales (Damasio 36). Amnesia is a permanent damage on the brain's hippocampus, a part of the brain essential to memory, and the temporal lobe, a region of the brain that serves as a two-way communication with the rest of the cerebral cortex. Damage in the hippocampus hinders the creation of new memories. Patients with an impaired hippocampus are known to have anterograde amnesia. They are unable to hold factual memories for longer than one minute. On the other hand, the amnesiacs that are unable to retrieve long-term memories are diagnosed with retrograde amnesia, which is characterized by an impaired in temporal lobe (Damasio 36). Amnesiacs do not have awareness of the correct time, which makes it difficult for them to place events in the right chronological order and store new factual memories. This deficiency greatly affects their way of living and their social interaction. The idea of time travel has not escape the imaginative minds of people. In 1895, H. G. Wells published the book The Time Machine, which opened the idea of time travel to the public. The proposition seemed so impossible but the physicist Einstein attempted to explain the possibility of such phenomenon through physics (Gott 8). In 1905, Einstein developed his theory of special relativity and explained how time is measured differently by still and moving objects. Einstein's mathematics professor Hermann Minowski expanded his theory and told that time could be treated mathematically as the universe's fourth dimension (Gott 8). If their proposition is correct, their theory would allow humans to travel back in time or go forth to the future. However, Ray Bradbury stated the dangers of time travel to the past and the possible effects to the present once the course of history is altered. Hence, the events that happened in the past cannot be touched for it will greatly affect the current circumstances. 3. 3 Perception of Time. Time is treated also differently in every culture. The differences in perception of things could be attributed to the cultural relativism aforementioned. Awareness of time is very important to humans. Today, we are paid by the hour and our daily routines are based on time. Our early ancestors utilized everything that can be found in their environment to be able to tell time. They used the daily motions of the moon and sun. Assuming an unconventional movement of the celestial bodies resulted in certain phenomena, they were able to perceive the future through a cause-and-effect relationship (Falk n. p). For example, the Babylonians had their way of foretelling events by means of hepatoscopy, which involves sacrificing a liver. They believed that through this ritual, the gods allow them to foresee the future (Schick and Vaughn 97). Different cultures developed various methods and devices to determine time. For instance, the Romans developed the calendar, which was by Pope Gregory XIII. The perception of time could also be considered necessary in one's cultural requirements. This is evident in the empires established in Latin America. These empires dictated how to regulate time in order to fix civil, agricultural, and religious dates. On the other hand, Muslims, maintain strict daily routine of timely prayers to keep track of time (Falk n. p). Today, we treat time as inanimate, passing in a constant rate. We are all considered as slaves of time. We can never hasten up or slow down the passage of time. However, this was not the case for the Maya, as time is organic for them. According to the Mayas, time can be stretched, shrunk, or even overpowered by human activity. In fact, many cultures perceived time as organic in nature. In these cultures, time was told through human activities and not through the constraints of a clock or a calendar (Falk n. ). 4. 0 Discussion In light of the findings provided by the sources, the existence of various traditions, beliefs, and values anchored to their culture has created a disparity in people’s perception. People act in accordance to their culture and society where they live. Behavior and action against the prevailing norms will be perceived by other people as a deviatio n or as a mental illness. This disparity in perception of right and wrong could be attributed to cultural relativism, or the difference in cultural beliefs and values. Throughout history, people have developed their perception of time. Our ancestors used conventional tools and devices to be able to tell time. Through the use of astrological components, they were able to acquire an understanding of the future events through cause-and-effect relationship by connecting a certain lunar or solar manifestation that resulted in certain events. Perception of time greatly depends on the brain’s functioning. An impairment of certain regions of the brain responsible for holding and storing memories and sequencing events in a chronological order deeply affects an individual’s perception of time. An example of this brain disorder is amnesia. Amnesiacs have an incorrect perception of time due to their ailment. The idea of time travel that seems unworkable was made theoretically possible by Einstein. In his theory of special relativity, he explained that the treating time as the universe's fourth dimension can make time travel possible. Still, there are dangers in traveling back to the past because it may alter the course of events and the present situations. There is no universal perception of time. Time is perceived differently in various cultures. Some culture perceive it as inanimate, others treat it as organic that can be controlled by human activity.